The Charles Cannell Fund in Survey Methodology of the Survey Research Center at the University of Michigan was established by students, colleagues and friends of Charlie to honor him as a mentor and to further research and training on the interviewer-respondent interaction and its effects on the validity and quality of survey data.
In making awards, special emphasis will be placed on efforts to develop social psychological theories, test hypotheses and techniques derived from these theories, and develop techniques for measuring and improving the interaction between the respondent and the interviewer. Preference will be given to proposals that examine respondent and interviewer behavior as opposed to inferring the behavior based on statistical analysis. Possible uses of the funds include, but are not limited to, support related to dissertation research by a graduate student, small experimental studies by graduate students or junior researchers, or visiting scholars conducting related research. Special attention will be given to activities that will produce results that are visible in the field and that will attract or sustain interest in research related to the interaction between the interviewer and the respondent. Awardees will be invited to present findings from their research to the research staff of the Survey Research Center.
Junior researchers, including Graduate Students, Assistant Research Scientists, Assistant Professors, Research Investigators, and Postdoctoral Fellows are eligible. Other things being equal, preference will be given to graduate students for research or training carried out at the University of Michigan.
View/download application guidelines (PDF 10K)
Cannell Fund Committee Members
- Frauke Kreuter, University of Maryland
- Nancy Mathiowetz, University of Wisconsin – Milwaukee, chair
- Peter Miller, U.S. Census Bureau
- Nora Cate Schaeffer, University of Wisconsin – Madison
- Brady West, University of Michigan
Cannell Fund Recipients and Their Projects
Jamie Griffin is an Assistant Research Scientist with the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) at the Institute for Social Research. Using Cannell Award funds, she will evaluate the interviewer-respondent interaction during the administration of the PSID event history calendar in the main interview. Specifically, she aims to document the prevalence of interviewer and respondent key verbal behaviors associated with respondent recall, the respondent uncertainty about the timing of residential and employment-related events, and interviewer reactions to respondent uncertainty. Griffin expects to share her findings in early 2016.
Simon Kühne is a doctoral student at the Berlin Graduate School of Social Sciences, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin and a Research Associate with the Socio-Economic Panel Study at DIW Berlin. As part of his dissertation, the Cannell Award funds will allow him to collect and combine data on both self-reported attitudes and mutual estimates of each other’s attitudes of the interviewer and respondent. Kühne aims to shed light on how interviewer attitudes and mutual interpersonal perceptions of interviewers and respondents affect respondents’ answers related to attitude questions in face-to-face interviews. He plans to share his results in late 2016 or early 2017.
Kristen Cibelli Hibben is a doctoral candidate in the Michigan Program in Survey Methodology. Her Cannell funded project examines the effect of respondent commitment, tailored feedback, and the use of contextual recall cues on the quality and accuracy of reported health care utilization in an online survey of the parents or guardians of child patients at the University of Michigan Pediatric Clinics. Her study extends the existing research by examining the effect of these techniques in increasing response accuracy by validating responses with medical record information. Hibben expects to field the survey in early 2015 and to analyze the results in the summer of 2015. (Read Kristen Cibelli Hibben’s Profile.)
Hanyu Sun is investigating whether rapport can be similarly established in a video-mediated and computer-assisted personal interviews, whether video-mediated interviews increase disclosure of moderately sensitive information to the same extent as CAPI, and whether the interaction between the interviewer and respondent in the preceding module (CAPI or video-mediated) has an effect on the reporting of sensitive information in the subsequent ACASI module. Sun completed her dissertation, Rapport and Its Impact on the Disclosure of Sensitive Information in Standardized Interviews, and received her Ph.D. in 2014. She presented at the 2015 AAPOR National Conference a presentation entitled, “The Impact of Rapport on Data Quality in CAPI and Video-Mediated Interviews: Disclosure of Sensitive Information and Item Nonresponse.” She is currently a survey methodologist at Westat.
In 2013, the Cannell Fund co-sponsored the Interviewer-Respondent Interaction Workshop, May 15-16, in Boston, immediately preceding the 68th Annual Conference of the American Association for Public Opinion Research. For more information about the workshop, visit the Workshop website.
Dana Garbarski studies the interaction between interviewers and respondents regarding end-of-life treatment preferences and that of their spouses in order to better understand interactional “rapport” both conceptually and empirically. She received her Ph.D. in Sociology and an M.S. in Population Health Sciences from the University of Wisconsin-Madison in August of 2012. Garbarski is currently an Assistant Professor in the Department of Sociology at Loyola University Chicago. Garbarski, along with colleagues, Nora Cate Schaeffer and Jennifer Dykema, is editing a special issue for Survey Practice on “Interviewer-Respondent Interaction Coding: Current Issues and Recent Findings.” They also have published, “Interviewing Practices, Conversational Practices, and Rapport: Responsiveness and Engagement in the Survey Interview” in Sociological Methodology. (Read Dana Garbarski’s profile.)
Julie Korbmacher and Ulrich Krieger, researchers at the Munich Center for the Economics of Aging with is part of the Max Planck Institute for Social Law and Social Policy, are examining interviewer influence on cooperation rates and survey quality in the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). They will interview interviewers who all work for the same survey but in different countries. It is of special interest to their research how interviewers’ attitudes towards the SHARE influence their performance on response rate and nonresponse on sensitive questions which interviewers have been shown to have some influence. Korbmacher is a Ph.D. student in statistics at the LMU in Munich. Krieger is in his last year of his Ph.D. in sociology at the University of Mannheim.
Brady West‘s research attempts to fill in some of the gaps left by nonresponse asking, “Is the Collection of Interviewer Observations Worthwhile in an Economic Panel Survey? New Evidence from the German Labor Market and Social Security (PASS) Study.” West received his Ph.D. in Survey Methodology from the University of Michigan in 2011. He is now an Research Assistant Professor in the Survey Methodology Program at the University of Michigan. (Read Brady West’s profile.)
Jessica Broome received her doctorate in 2012 from the Michigan Program in Survey Methodology. Her dissertation (PDF 1.2 MB) explores vocal characteristics, speech and the behavior of telephone interviewers. She has also published “How Telephone Interviewers’ Responsiveness Impacts their Success” and “First Impressions of Telephone Survey Interviews.” Broome is currently a research consultant for clients in the private and nonprofit sectors.
Rebecca Rosen‘s research, “Effects of Mood and Interviewing Mode on Self-Disclosure by College Students,” (PDF 1.2 MB) seeks to assess the effect of mood and interviewer characteristics when face-to-face interviews are conducted about sensitive issues. Her study focuses on depressed college students and will be carried out at the New School for Social Research. Rosen received her Ph.D. in Clinical Psychology in 2011.
Ashley Clark‘s research, “An Investigation of the Effects of Job Attitudes on Interviewer Turnover and Quality of Job Performance in U.S. and Canadian Centralized Telephone Interviewing Facilities,” is an initial step to fill the gap in the understanding of the effects of interviewer job attitudes on job outcomes as well as the cost and data quality of the data collected. Her research design includes both a quantitative phase and a qualitative phase to study these effects in several centralized telephone interviewing facilities. Bowers expects to receive her Ph.D. from the University of Michigan Program in Survey Methodology. She is currently the Director of the Center for Survey Research, and a Clinical Assistant Professor in the School of Public and Environmental Affairs at Indiana University.
2009 – 2010
Stephanie Eckman‘s dissertation, “Errors in Housing Unit Listing and Their Effects on Survey Estimates,” (PDF 924K) explores the mechanisms of error in interviewer created housing unit listing, using original data collection in conjunction with the National Survey of Family Growth. Eckman received her Ph.D. from the University of Maryland’s Joint Program in Survey Methodology in 2010. She is currently employed as a Senior Researcher at the Institute for Employment Research in Nuremberg, Germany.
Ipek Bilgen‘s research, “Is Less More & More Less…? The Effect of Two Types of Interviewer Experience on ‘Don’t Know’ Responses in Calendar and Standardized Interviews,” (PDF 2 MB) explores the effect of interpersonal communication dynamics and retrieval strategies on item non-response in an interviewer-administered telephone survey. This study also appraises the influence of survey-specific and general interviewer experience on interviewers’ behavior and perception change. Standardized and calendar interviewing techniques are the two different methods explored in this study. Bilgen received her Ph.D. from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, and is currently a Survey Methodologist with NORC at the University of Chicago. She presented “The Effect of Interviewer Experience on Item Non-Response: A Verbal Behavior Study” (PDF 283K) at AAPOR in 2011.
2008 – 2009
Matthew Jans‘s dissertation, “Can Speech Cues and Voice Qualities Predict Item Nonresponse and Inaccuracies in Answers to Sensitive Questions,” (PDF 2 MB) explores the impact of speech and voice quality (change in pitch, pauses and repairs) on the quality of responses to sensitive questions in surveys. Jans received his Ph.D. from the University of Michigan Program in Survey Methodology in 2009. He presented “Using Respondent Verbal Paradata to Predict Income Nonoresponse: How They Say it Can Predict What They’ll Say,” (PDF 303KB) at AAPOR in 2010. Jans is currently the Data Quality and Survey Methodology Manager for the California Health Interview Survey at the UCLA Center for Health Policy Research.
Brooke Foucault Welles‘s research uses a series of studies to explore rapport between the interviewer and the respondent. Her goal is to develop a more robust understanding of rapport, including a detailed understanding of which components and surface-level behaviors increase socially desirable responses. In 2009, she and her colleagues presented “Nonveral Correlates of Survey Rapport” (PDF 90KB) at AAPOR. She earned her Ph.D. from Northwestern University and is currently an Assistant Professor in the department of Communication Studies at Northeastern University.
2007 – 2008
Rachel Davis‘s dissertation, “Whatever it Means to You: Ethnicity, Language, and the Survey Response in Telephone-Administered Health Surveys of African Americans,” (PDF 475KB) explores the impact of race and ethnic identity on health survey data, interviewer race preferences, and ratings of interviewers among African American telephone survey respondents. Davis received her Ph.D. from the University of Michigan School of Public Health, Department of Health Behavior and Health Education in 2008. She is currently an Assistant Professor in the Department of Health Promotion, Education, and Behavior at the Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina. Research publications based on her Cannell funded research include “Preferences for Interviewer Dialect Use and Race among African American Health Survey Respondents” (PDF 192K) and “Interviewer Effects in Public Health Surveys.”
Laura Lind‘s research, “The Use of Animated Agents in Surveys: How Does Manipulating the Level of Animation and Interactivity of a Computerized Interviewing Agent Affect Respondents Answers to Sensitive Survey Questions” is a lab-based experimental study of how respondents answers to sensitive survey questions are affected by four different modes of survey administration (A-CASI administration, low-end animated agent, high-end animated agent and traditional face-to-face interviews). Lind received her Pd.D. from the New School for Social Research in Cognitive, Social, & Developmental Psychology in 2008. This research publication, “Why Do Survey Respondents Disclose More When Computers Ask the Questions?” is based on her Cannell Funded research.
No awards were made.
2005 – 2006
David Wilson‘s research, “An Experimental Approach to Estimating Race of Interviewer Effects in Telephone Interviews,” is an experimental study of how the perception of interviewer’s race in telephone surveys affects responses to different kinds of interview content. Wilson received his Ph.D. from Michigan State University in 2005 and is currently an Associate Professor of Political Science and International Relations at the University of Delaware. “Statistical Profiles of Race of Interviewer Perceptibility in National Surveys” (PDF 96K) is based on Wilson’s work funded by the Cannell Fund.
Lindsay Benstead is currently an Assistant Professor of Political Science at the Mark O. Hatfield School of Government at Portland State University. “Effects of Interviewer Gender and Hijab on Gender-Related Survey Responses: Findings from a Nationally-Representative Field Experiment in Morocco” (PDF 373K) was made possible in part by the award from The Cannell Fund.
Jennifer Dykema received support for digitizing tape-recordings of interviewer-respondent interactions that allowed her to continue her research on how these interactions affect the quality of survey responses. Dykema received her Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin in Sociology in 2004. She is a Senior Scientist and Survey Methodologist at the University of Wisconsin Survey Center. Along with colleagues Nora Cate Schaeffer and Dana Garbarski, Dykema is editing a special issue for Survey Practice on “Interviewer-Respondent Interaction Coding: Current Issues and Recent Findings.” She serves on the editorial boards for Public Opinion Quarterly and the Journal of Survey Statistics and Methodology, and she is an Associate Editor for BMC Medical Research Methodology. She is also active in the survey research community. She currently is the Associate Conference Chair for the American Association for Public Opinion Research (AAPOR) and serves on AAPOR’s Executive Council.
2004 – 2005
Patrick Ehlen‘s research, “The Dynamic Role of Some Conversational Cues in the Process of Referential Alignment,” focuses on conceptual alignment in answers to survey questions, or how well the concept held by the respondent matches that intended by the designer of the question. The goal is to identify speech behaviors that might indicate conceptual misalignment in order to improve the question-and-answer process. As a post-doc at CSLI at Stanford University, Ehlen subsequently worked on the telephone survey implications of the widespread use of mobile phones in the United States. “Cellular-only Substitution in the United States as Lifestyle Adoption: Implications for Telephone Survey Coverage” was published in Public Opinion Quarterly in 2007, and presented at the 2008 Annual AAPOR Conference. His most recent project involved NSF-funded research on multimodal aspects of the interviewer/respondent relationship, undertaken as a joint effort among ISR, the New School for Social Research, and AT&T Labs. Results from this research were presented at AAPOR 2012 and SIGDIAL 2013, and published as “Precision and disclosure in text and voice interviews on smartphones” in PLOS ONE in 2015. Ehlen is currently Chief Scientist at Loop AI Labs, an artificial intelligence company based in San Francisco.
Frauke Kreuter‘s research, “Interviewer Effects as a Function of Respondents, Interviewer and Question Type,” developed a theoretical model to help identify, measure, and reduce interviewer effects in surveys by taking into account the interaction of the respondent, the interviewer, and the properties of the survey question. Frauke Kreuter is a Professor in the Joint Program in Survey Methodology at the University of Maryland, Professor of Statistics and Methodology at the University of Mannheim, and head of the Statistical Methods Research Department at the Institute for Employment Research (IAB) in Nürnberg, Germany